Defining a Conceptual Framework for a Toolkit to Game Design: The Gamers4Nature Project
Seeking to capitalize the interest of younger audiences in game creation activities, the Gamers4Nature project aims to develop a toolkit designed to support game design by allowing the manipulation of the several elements that compose a game. Prior to the toolkit’s development, there was the need to establish the respective conceptual framework. This paper describes the process of defining the project’s conceptual framework. Based on Fullerton’s perspective on game design, the framework was defined following a participatory design approach with the participation of different stakeholders (postgraduate students with extensive knowledge about game design and experts in the game design field). To ease the discussion sessions, a physical artifact (19 hexagonal pieces, and a honeycomb structured board) was developed. Results suggest that a non-linear approach to game design may promote not only the definition of the game’s structure and gameplay but also allow a contextualised analysis of all its elements.
Adams, E. (2014). Fundamentals of game design (3rd edition). Berkley, CA: New Riders. Anderson, C. A. (2004). An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.009
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353–359. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00366
Bickman, L., & Rog, D. (1998). The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods, Thousand Oaks. CA:SAGE Publications, Inc.
Boyle, E. A., Connolly, T. M., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). Engagement in digital entertainment games: A systematic review. In Computers in Human Behavior (Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 771–780). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.020
Briot, J. P., de Azevedo Irving, M., Mendes De Melo, G., Vasconcelos, J. E. F., Alvarez, I., Martin, S., & Wei, W. (2011). A serious game and artificial agents to support intercultural participatory management of protected areas for biodiversity conservation and social inclusion. Proceedings - 2011 2nd International Conference on Culture and Computing, Culture and Computing 2011, 15–20. https://doi.org/10.1109/Culture-Computing.2011.12
Caillois, R. (1990). Os jogos e os homens: a máscara e a vertigem - Trad José Garcez Palha. Lisbon, PT: Cotovia.
Clement, J. (2021, December 21). Number of indie games released on Steam worldwide from 2015 to 2017.
Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers and Education, 59(2), 661–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.004
de Grove, F., Bourgonjon, J., & van Looy, J. (2012). Digital games in the classroom? A contextual approach to teachers’ adoption intention of digital games in formal education. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2023–2033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.021
Earp, J. (2015). Game Making for Learning: a Systematic Review of the Research Literature. International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 6426–6435. Retrieved December 30,2021 from http://tinyurl.com/earp-lit-review
Earp, J., Dagnino, F., & Ott, M. (2014). Learning through Game Making: an HCI Perspective. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, 513–524.
Elias, G., Garfield, R., & Gutscheram K. (2012). Characteristics of Games, Massachusetts, USA: The MIT Press.
Fullerton, T. (2014). Game Design Workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games (3rd ed.). Massachusetts, USA: A K Peters/CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
Gee, P.J. (2008). Learning and Games. In K. Salen and K. Tekinbaş (Eds.) The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning, Massachusetts, USA: The MIT Press, pp. 21–40.
Giannakos, M. N., & Jaccheri, L. (2018). From players to makers: An empirical examination of factors that affect creative game development. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 18, 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2018.06.002
Good, J., & Howland, K. (2017). Programming language, natural language? Supporting the diverse computational activities of novice programmers. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 39, 78–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvlc.2016.10.008
Griffiths, D., & Davies, M. N. O. (2002). Excessive online computer gaming: implications for education. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(3), 379-380. Doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0266-4909.2002.00248.x
Howland, K., & Good, J. (2015). Learning to communicate computationally with Flip: A bi-modal programming language for game creation. Computers and Education, 80, 224–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.014
Huizenga, J. C., ten Dam, G. T. M., Voogt, J. M., & Admiraal, W. F. (2017). Teacher perceptions of the value of game-based learning in secondary education. Computers and Education, 110, 105– 115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.03.008
Huizinga, J. (2001). Homo Ludens (S. Perspetiva). São Paulo, BR: Editora Perspectiva.
Hunicke, R., Leblanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research. AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI, 30–45. Retrieved Dec 30, 2021 https://users.cs.northwestern.edu/~hunicke/MDA.pdf
Ivey, J. (2015). How important is a conceptual framework? Pediatric Nursing, 41(3), 145–153.
Joel Michael, X., Martinkova, P., McFarland, J., Wright, A., Cliff, W., Modell, H., & Pat Wenderoth, M. (2017). Validating a conceptual framework for the core concept of “cell-cell communication.” HOW WE TEACH Generalizable Education Research Adv Physiol Educ, 41, 260–265. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00100.2016
Juul, J. (2003). The Game, the Player, the World: Looking for a Heart of Gameness. In M.Copier and J. Raessens (Eds.) Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceeding, Utrecht: Utrecht University, 30–45.
Juul. (2005). Half-Real: Video Games between Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambdridge: MIT Press.
Ke, F. (2014). An implementation of design-based learning through creating educational computer games: A case study on mathematics learning during design and computing. Computers and Education, 73, 26–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.12.010
Macklin, C., & Sharp, J. (2016). Games, Design and Play: a detailed approach to Iterative Game Design. Massachusetts, USA: Addison-Wesley.
Majuri, J., Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2018). Gamification of education and learning: A review of empirical literature. In J. Koivisto & J.Hamari (Eds.)Proceedings of the 2nd International GamiFIN Conference (GamiFIN 2018), 11–19.
Merhi, O., Faugloire, E., Flanagan, M., & Stoffregen, T. A. (2007). Motion sickness, console video games, and head-mounted displays. Human Factors, 49(5), 920–934. https://doi.org/10.1518/001872007X230262
National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11625
Ogletree, S. M., & Drake, R. (2007). College students’ video game participation and perceptions: Gender differences and implications. Sex Roles, 56(7), 537-542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9193-5
Pontual Falcão, T., Mendes de Andrade e Peres, F., Sales de Morais, D. C., & da Silva Oliveira, G. (2018). Participatory methodologies to promote student engagement in the development of educational digital games. Computers and Education, 116, 161–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.09.006
Robertson, J. (2012). Making games in the classroom: Benefits and gender concerns. Computers and Education, 59(2), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.020
Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press
Sharp, H., Preece, J., & Rogers, Y. (2019). Interaction Design: beyond human-computer interaction (Ed.; 5th Edition).New Jersey, USA: Wiley.
Sousa, M., Zagalo, N., & Oliveira, A. P. (2021). Mechanics or Mechanisms: defining differences in analog games to support game design. 2021 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG), Copenhagen, Denmark, 1–8. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CoG52621.2021.9619055
Vos, N., van der Meijden, H., & Denessen, E. (2011). Effects of constructing versus playing an educational game on student motivation and deep learning strategy use. Computers and Education, 56(1), 127–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.08.013
Copyright (c) 2021 Mónica Aresta, Pedro Beça, Rita Santos, Ana Isabel Veloso
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in the JDMI agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0. This licensing allows others to share the work with no changes and acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal, but not for commercial use.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after publication, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Copyrights to illustrations published in the journal remain with their current copyright holders.
It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to quote from copyright sources.
Any fees required to obtain illustrations or to secure copyright permissions are the responsibility of authors.
All correspondence concerning contributions, books and other review material should be sent to: email@example.com